Research shows that handwriting can be an essential and efficient educational tool



  • Angela Webb, ‘Handwriting now and in the future‘ in ‘Writing: Making your Mark‘. Ewan Clayton (ed.), British Library, London, 2019.
  • James K.H., Engelhardt L., ‘The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children’. Published by Trends in Neuroscience and Education, Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2012, pages 32–42.
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  • Nakamura K., Kuo W.J., Pegado F., Cohen L., Tzeng O.J., Dehaene S., ‘Universal brain systems for recognizing word shapes and handwriting gestures during reading’. PNAS, December 11, 2012.
  • Berninger V.W., ‘Evidence-Based, Developmentally Appropriate Writing Skills K–5: Teaching the Orthographic Loop of Working Memory to Write Letters So Developing Writers Can Spell Words and Express Ideas’. Presented at ‘Handwriting in the 21st Century?: An Educational Summit’, Washington, D.C., January 23, 2012.
  • Anne Mangen and Jean-Luc Velay, ‘Digitizing Literacy: Reflections on the Haptics of Writing’ in Advances in Haptics, Mehrdad Hosseini Zadeh (ed.), April 1, 2010.
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  • James K.H. and Atwood T.P., ‘The role of sensorimotor learning in the perception of letter-like forms: Tracking the causes of neural specialization for letters’. Cognitive Neuropsychology, February 2009.
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  • Berninger V.W., Winni W.D., ‘Implications of advancements in brain research and technology for writing development, writing instruction and educational evolution’. In MacArthur C.A., Graham S., Fitzgerald J., ‘Handbook of writings research’, New York 2006.
  • Longcamp M., Boucard C., Gillhodes J.C., Velay J-L., ‘Remembering the orientation of newly learned characters depends on the associated writing knowledge: a comparison between handwriting and typing’. Human Movement Science, October 2006.
  • Longcamp M., Zerbato-Poudou M.T., Velay J-L., ‘The influence of writing practice on letter recognition in preschool children: a comparison between handwriting and typing’. Acta Psychologica, May 2005.
  • Longcamp M., Anton J.L., Roth M., Velay J-L., ‘Visual presentation of single letters activates a premotor area involved in writing’. Neuroimage, August 2003.
  • Harvey C., Henderson S., ‘Children’s handwriting in the first three years of school: Consistency over time and its relationship to academic achievement’. Handwriting Review, vol. 11, 1997.

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